impact of five year plan on education

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impact of five year plan on education

Besides, the mass production of an indigenous passenger vehicle was not part of the agenda. Having discussed the state of India’s affairs at the micro and macro level since independence, it is worth exploring the rational foundations to determine a link between innovation and national competitiveness. Digital architecture is conceptualized to lead the transformation of and update on the industry by using Building Information Modelling (BIM) and cloud computation, big data, logistical net, mobile Internet, and artificial intelligence. The first plan was created in 1928 and put into action in 1929. An important aspect of China’s economic reform is the way in which it has embraced globalization by increasingly opening up to foreign trade and foreign investment. With regard to environmental protection, the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011–2015) continues the strategies that were successfully implemented under the previous plan, stressing the promotion of green development with environmental protection and further improvements in living quality by strengthening environmental management (see, for example, Zhang and Crooks, 2011). The Planning Commission later presented its draft 12th five year plan (2012-17) on December 27, 2012 to the National Development Council which has now adopted it. However, it is not possible or practical to give equal importance to all aspects of a plan. The Five Year Plan (FYP) is China’s top-level policy blueprint and has been called “one of the most important documents on the planet” for global sustainability. The 13th five-year plan outline for the national economic and societal development of the People’s Republic of China has proposed that “focus on the infrastructure transformation, public service convienientalised [conventionalized], social governance refinement, and sufficiently utilize modern information technology and big data to construct a new pile of model smart cities.” The general secretary Jinping Xi has stressed on the workshop of cybersecurity and information.1 The notions of the new urbanization (1) Centering on citizens enhance the technology provision capacity, pillared at new infrastructure, rooted with new services, focused on new governance; explore the new patterns of constructive executive; build long-term development mechanism; insist on the clarified new development path, further to continuously enhance the level of city modernization, and gradually satisfy the needs of citizens’ happy life. In the case of China, though environmental standards are set at the national level, local Chinese governments can achieve differential de facto regulations by tightening or relaxing environmental enforcement (Zhang, 2012). ARISNET has four modules, viz., Agricultural Research Personnel Information System (ARPIS), Agricultural Research Financial Information System (ARFIS), Agricultural Research Library Information System (ARLIS), and Agricultural Research Management Information System (ARMIS). In addition, steps were taken to reform the primary and secondary education system. In this document, the government advocated that, ‘The development of the Eastern coastal belt shall be further accelerated and, at the same time, the construction of energy and raw material industries shall be focused on the Central belt, while the preparatory works for the further development of the Western belt shall be actively conducted.’8 Since this time, the three-belt definition has been widely used in government policy documents as well as in the literature.9. Zhikai Wang, in The Private Sector and China's Market Development, 2008. but also face up to the citizen’s groups for providing high-level personalized intelligent services. Such situations were not unheard of under Stalin's Five-Year Plans. At this time, automobile production (1960), ship-building (1967), mechanical engineering (1967), and electronics industry (1967) were the central concern of governmental promotion (see Byun, 1989; Song, 1990). On 4 th October, the government of India approved the 12th five year plan (2012-17) that aims to achieve annual average economic growth rate of 8.2 per cent, down from 9 per cent (Eleventh plan 2007-12).. Korean economic policy in the 1960s was characterized by import substitution and export orientation. At the postgraduate level, China has also caught up with the world's leading countries. The government has also recognised that an important source of high-quality personnel is Chinese students abroad. During the past two decades, 1,363 mobile post-doctoral stations have been established at Chinese universities and research institutions and 1,018 in industries (Ministry of Science and Technology, 2005b). Different jurisdictions may compete to attract foreign investment, so they tend to lower their environmental standards to cut their costs of production. And for the first time, the government inducted and empowered two industry captains to lead two of the government’s key initiatives. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Along with China’s spectacular economic growth as measured in GDP, various environmental challenges have dramatically increased in the past few decades. Even among the private firms of Jiangsu or Zhejiang, there are no exceptions. Confirm Password *. The PRC National People’s Congress recently released China’s 13th Five-Year Plan (FYP) on National Economic and Social Development to outline economic policies and targets to drive industry development in China through 2020. Educational planning is more than a technical exercise. Register Now. The concepts of the Eastern, Central and Western belts first appeared in the proposal for national economic and social development in the seventh Five-Year Plan (1986–90), which was adopted in April 1986 by the National People’s Congress (NPC). The literature provides very little evidence that foreign trade and FDI necessarily lead to worsening pollution and a deteriorating environment (Antweiler et al., 2001; Frankel and Rose, 2005).3, Globally, raised concerns about the seriousness of environmental degradation and the urgent need for environmental protection in the process of economic development have motivated the creation of models of green growth, or environmentally sustainable growth, for developing countries. Rongxing Guo, in Understanding the Chinese Economies, 2013. NEP allowed for … At the same time Korean universities attempted to produce as many engineers as possible, because there was a great shortage of qualified engineers, who were indispensable for the development of the Korean economy. In fact, nearly half (9 of 20) of the environmental objectives under the 10th Five-Year Plan were not met, while the 11th Five-Year Plan failed to meet only 2 of its 13 quantitative objectives.2 Environmental targets set under the 11th Five-Year Plan contributed to remarkable environmental achievements compared with the preceding plan. 7.2.4 The first Five-year Plan was launched in 1951 and two subsequent five-year plans were formulated till 1965, when there was a break because of the Indo-Pakistan Conflict. School of education However, looking at the key indicators of internationalisation and the private sector’s overseas direct investment, one can see that the internationalisation of the Chinese private sector still has far to go; indeed, the internationalisation of private firms pales besides the internationalisation of state-owned enterprises. At this point, overseas direct investment from private enterprises was still in its infancy. For example, the production of pig iron and steel increased by only 600,000 to 800,000 tons in 1929, barely surpassing the 1913-14 level. The 12 provinces surrounded by the Yellow, East China and South China Seas are classified as the ‘coastal area’, while the remaining provinces are regarded as the ‘inland area’ (see Figure 2.3). In 2002 China ranked third behind the USA and Germany in terms of annual PhD awards (People's Daily, 2002c). This implies China needs not slow its development process or return to a closed economy to avoid environmental deterioration. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. The plan was drawn up by the leaders of six key organisations involved in running and monitoring the NHS and related services. And the appointment of Infosys co-chairman, Nandan Nilekani, to the national ID project also marked the government’s intent in executing some of these ambitious programmes. On May 8, 2006 the Central Office of CPC, State Council has launched the “National Informationization Development Strategy 2006–2020” and requested all regions and departments to combine the reality to fully implement and carry out. First Plan (1951–1956) The first Indian prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, presented the First Five-Year Plan to the Parliament of India and needed urgent attention. In this strategy, it is stated that the informationization is the big tendency of the world development and the significant power in facilitating the economic–societal transformation. Figure 10.1. But there is never one solitary objective of the plan. The priorities of the essentially centrally directed economy and the economic policies of the time did not encourage development in the industry and can be a plausible cause for the slump in the sector during the period. International education is an essential pillar of Canada’s long-term competitiveness. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. In the past few years China has increased the percentage of high-school graduates having access to higher education institutions from 4 per cent to a gross enrolment rate of 19 per cent. As a result, foreign trade and FDI can lead to deterioration of the environment. Secondary education, according to the Indian education policy and provision mentioned in each five year plan by planning commission of India. M.Ed., 5-Year Impact Factor: 8.981 ℹ Five-Year Impact Factor: 2019: 8.981 To calculate the five year Impact Factor, citations are counted in 2019 to the previous five years and divided by the source items published in the previous five years. The 12th Five-Year Plan, whose environmental focuses are on reducing pollution, increasing energy efficiency, and ensuring a stable, reliable, and clean energy supply, shows the Chinese government determination to make a great effort in calling for more energy-saving and environmentally friendly methods of production in order to lower environmental costs in the future. School Education and Literacy in the 12th Plan (2012 - 2017), Customer Code: Creating a Company Customers Love, Be A Great Product Leader (Amplify, Oct 2019), Trillion Dollar Coach Book (Bill Campbell). In the field of education, to gradually popularize and implement the nine-year compulsory education scheme, and train five million professionals, twice that during the previous planning period. I am very pleased to launch the new International Education Strategy (IES), Building on Success, in conjunction with my colleagues at Employment and Social Development Canada and Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. In this context, a review of country-level data over a wider time window will provide the background to the predictions I make. A new type of smart cities provides mutual reciprocal services to multiple groups and cross-digital gaps, which soothes the city running systems, and the citizens mutually construct and participate, innovate political commercial think tanks, scientific research agencies, and investors cooperative mechanism, to construct the inclusive ecological system.2. It is also an organised social process involving a variety of actors. The Ministry of Education's Four Year Plan 2016-2020 sets out what we’re trying to achieve and how we’re going to do it. (3) Green low carbon is the titled meaning of the construction of smart cities. Besides further investment, the MOE has focused on the steady diffusion of higher education. In 1950, the Government set up the Planning Commission to create, develop, and execute India’s five-year plans. The rest of this chapter is structured as follows. The plan is supposed to work towards the perspective plan and must cover a few important objectives. Taking environmental inputs into consideration, output growth previously ascribed to TFP growth may actually be due to an increasing use of environmental resources. How the next five-year plan will change China: blueprint for nation's development explained President Xi Jinping and other top leaders discussed the five-year plan in Beijing last month. As Figure 8.6 reveals, the number of students returning from abroad has increased steadily since the early 1990s. These include the government arms-length bodies NHS England, Health Education England and Public Health England, which were created from 2011-13 to take over many roles formerly done by the Department of Health. E-Mail *. Journal Citation Reports (Clarivate Analytics, 2020) Korea's national innovation system concentrated on the digestion and imitation of imported technologies from advanced countries. However, subsequent social and environmental problems have increasingly become a serious concern. Expanded economic activities may put mounting pressure on natural resources and environmental quality. Teagmháil / Contact: webmaster@education.gov.ie Schools & Colleges. The informationization has exerted deeper influence on the economic–societal development. A medium-sized truck manufactured in 1956 at the First Auto Works in Changchun, the capital of Jilin province, was the first indigenous Chinese automobile. The government has applied a strong technology-push approach in the construction and improvement of the national system of innovation. Of these, 43 per cent were state-owned enterprises, 10 per cent were individual enterprises, and 5 per cent were foreign-funded enterprises; the remainder were stock-holder and cooperative companies, and enterprises with other ownership structures. Canadians who study abroad gain exposure to new cultures and ideas, stimulating innovation and developing important cross-cultural competencies. The ONMS Education Strategic Plan is designed to ensure education excellence in sanctuary programming, increase ocean and climate literacy in the pub - lic, and cultivate partnerships that will enhance the impact of sanctuary messages, all in order to help maximize sanctuary resource protection and overall ocean health. Number of returned students (1990–2003), Lei Tang, in The Chinese Consumer Market, 2009. Therefore, local jurisdictions in China have the incentives to attract FDI into their local regions by loosening environmental enforcement. With neither the directive nor the capacity to produce either light or heavy trucks, the industry restricted itself to producing only medium-sized trucks. This 5-year national action plan supports the UK 20-year vision for antimicrobial resistance. Since the initiation of market-oriented reforms in 1978, economic growth has been the central task of the Chinese government. MINISTRY OF EDUCATION FOUR YEAR PLAN 20162020 AMBITIOUS i FOR NEW ZEALAND Contents Guide to this plan ii Foreword Minister of Education iv Foreword Minister for Tertiary Education, Skills and Employment v Introduction Secretary for Education vi Part 1 Who we are 1 The Ministry’s role 2 Our purpose 2 Our vision 2 What we do 2 Our behaviours 3 13th Five Year Plan Stresses Economic Restructuring. 5 Year Plan 2012-2016. Opening up the market was a fundamental shift in India’s polity. It is well docu-mented that the presence of female teachers often serves as a role model for girls and positively influences their enrolment and attendance. I do this in the following chapters. However, opening up is also blamed as a major cause of resource depletion and environmental degradation. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. One might therefore conclude that the strategy of looking for overseas opportunities is simply one of fragmentation. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128161692000109, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781843343998500076, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781843347620500128, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781843341536500087, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781843343325500024, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781843342298500024, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081020258000223, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123978264000020, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080441986500620, Market integration and the internationalisation of China’s private enterprises, The Private Sector and China's Market Development, Ministry of Commerce and State Bureau of Statistics, 2004, Environmental factors and sustainable development, China’s environmental performance during its 11th, Antweiler et al., 2001; Frankel and Rose, 2005, Managing cooperation with local universities, Managing Foreign Research and Development in the People's Republic of China, China has continually increased its investment in education. In 2005 the total on-campus student population exceeded 20 million at more than 2,000 HEIs (Ministry of Education, 2005). See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. It was not until the beginning of the 1960s that national efforts for the promotion of science, technology and innovation were initiated in line with the First Five Year Plan for Economic Development, which was introduced in 1962. ...India’s 12th Five Year Plan to Focus on ‘Inclusive Growth’ Posted on Monday, April 25, 2011 by 2point6billion.com By Teja Yenamandra Planning Commission’s focus on instilling “inclusive growth” is making headway. Education creates better life choices and outcomes for New Zealanders. After many years of pursuing opportunities overseas, large enterprises from the east coastal provinces, together with China’s other large state-owned enterprises, have achieved remarkable results on their path to internationalisation. To powerfully facilitate the informationization, there are the strategic measures to cover the modernized overall goal of our nation, to implement the scientific development values, to comprehensibly build the good society, and to construct the socialist harmonious society and build the innovative national urgent desire and necessary option. The globalisation drive of the last 20 years has brought in the funds, technological know-how, standards, best practices and most importantly a mindset that have allowed India to compete on a global scale, with the result that a new generation of capitalists are now entering the workforce. Much of this period saw an industrial slowdown, with the total vehicle output staying below half a million units per year until the 1980s (Murray, 1994). (4) The interactions between the virtuality and reality bring the harmonious unity of the physical world and cyberspace. Sam Pitroda, widely regarded as the architect of the communication revolution of the 1980s and 1990s, was appointed as advisor to the Prime Minister on innovation and infrastructure over and above his role as the chairman of the knowledge commission. DURAIMURUGAN.E Four Year Plan 2016-2020. Even as private sector investment leapt up in 2003, private firms still only accounted for 1.5 per cent of the total national overseas direct investment (Ministry of Commerce and State Bureau of Statistics, 2004). However, if we calculate from overseas investment capital, the proportion of the total overseas investment from private firms was only 1 per cent more. Education is also key to equipping New Zealanders to thrive in the rapidly developing global environment. By the end of the Tenth Five-Year Plan the total expenditure on education could reach 5 per cent of GDP, compared to 2.59 per cent in 1998 (China Education Yearbook, 2002). Public sector investment in R&D was doubled to around 2 per cent of GDP. Note: This Summary was prepared by the China Daily newspaper, owned directly by the Communist Party of China. China faces severe pollution and environmental degradation for many reasons: rapid industrialization, reliance on coal as an energy source, a relatively large and energy-intensive manufacturing industry, and lax environmental protection enforcement. Only 3,300 tractors were produced in 1929. The internationalisation of some private enterprises in Jiangsu and Zhejiang has been progressing very well, and there has been notable progress in the rest of the nation. According to the race to the bottom hypothesis, foreign trade and FDI may pose downward pressure on environmental regulations in host regions. The informationization is the significant feature of the global economic–societal development and gradually evolves into all-in social transformation while entering into the 21st century. Pondicherry University. The world economic forum launched “the advocate for digital transformation,” which indicated that during the decade of 2016–25 the digital transformation is expected to bring industrial value and societal value of over 1000 billion. However, a strategy for environmentally sustainable development is needed because it does not necessarily follow that the environment improves as the country becomes richer. To date, there has been no significant change in this pattern. George Eby Mathew, in India's Innovation Blueprint, 2010. As the western part of the inland area has less-developed social and economic infrastructures than the eastern part, China’s inland area can be further divided into two sections – the Central belt which is next to the coastal area (here it is referred to as the Eastern belt) and the Western belt. Planning plays an important role in the smooth functioning of an economy. Even in the developed private sector provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangsu, many private firms are only at the stage of export trade; overseas direct investment among private firms remains rare, and the average size of overseas direct investment projects is relatively small – no more than US$20 million investment for each project (Cui, 2007). The draft plan document estimated that “developed economies and even China will face a shortage of about four crore (40 million) highly skilled workers by 2020, while, based on current projections of higher education, … Qiaomei Yang, in Smart City Emergence, 2019. (5) Open multiple: smart city systems are a complicated huge system that is not only surrounding the city energy infrastructure, Internet facilities, the business service, medical education, industries and fields, etc. First, the same leadership team that disbanded the Licence Raj and deregulated the economy returned to power, but now with a majority in parliament after the elections of 2009. It is also proposed that a capital gain waiver be granted on several types of investments, including those relating to universities, centres of excellence, and institutions engaged in sciences, technologies, mathematics, engineering, finance, management, law and legal services. Username *. This 80-chapter, more than 60,000character document- seeks to Western belt (including Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Tibet, Ningxia, and Xinjiang, with 56.7 percent of the land area). A new India is being launched from a new platform. Indian Council of Agricultural Research embarked upon a project called Agricultural Research Information System with the financial aid from World Bank during Eighth Five Year Plan so that agricultural scientists could carry out research more effectively by having systematic access to research information available in India as well as in other countries. These ‘angel investors’, as a quid-pro-quo to supporting innovation, will be offered several benefits such as a stamp duty waiver on certain market transactions and a waiver of direct and indirect taxes. The coastal/inland areas and the Eastern/Central/Western belts. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Who developed the Five Year Forward View? 1. 10.1). BY 4 Eleventh Five Year Plan neither in the school nor in the labour force but doing domestic work, mostly sibling care. New government organisations and numerous programmes have been established to advance this goal, which has many implications in terms of R&D cooperation with universities and research institutes. For the next three decades or so, the sector remained as merely a token presence in the Chinese industrial landscape. China’s recently announced 12th five-year plan aims to transform the world’s second-largest economy from an investment-driven dynamo into a global powerhouse with a steadier and more stable trajectory. During the Ninth, Ministry of Science and Technology, 2005b, China Science and Technology Statistics (2004), Elements of Information Organization and Dissemination, The concepts of the Eastern, Central and Western belts first appeared in the proposal for national economic and social development in the seventh. APIdays Paris 2019 - Innovation @ scale, APIs as Digital Factories' New Machi... No public clipboards found for this slide. Select file Browse The five-year plan was initially created by Vladimir Lenin to an attempt to resolve these economic problems, which Stalin upheld after Lenin’s death in 1924. India has to make sure that it is able to enhance rural GDP, which has a direct impact on rural migration and rapid urbanisation. Every five year plan is developed with a specific goal in mind. To help senior managers decode and understand its provisions, we analyzed the potential impact on 33 industries. China has continually increased its investment in education. This was dominated by investment from central government owned enterprises (more than 90 per cent of total overseas direct investment), the rest largely coming from state-owned large and medium-sized enterprises. The key challenges that policy-makers, administrators and bureaucrats will face in the next 37 years up to its anniversary centennial in 2047 will be to make innovation mainstream and provide the missing connection between India’s mental infrastructure and its physical infrastructure. The thriving Chinese economy and slowly liberalising political environment have transformed China's brain drain into brain gain since the economy's opening, and the Chinese government has invested tremendous efforts in attracting overseas Chinese academics and business people back to their country of origin (see Zweig, 2005). The plan is expected to be one that encourages the development of India’s agriculture, education, health and social welfare through government spending. Rapid industrial development in China has relied heavily on increasing inputs of natural resources and environmental services. In order to activate this economic policy effectively, an institutional framework in the area of science and technology began to be established, for example: the foundation of the Korea Institute of Science and technology (KIST) in 1966, which carries out R&D activities, especially in the technology areas mentioned above; the passing of the Science and Technology Promotion Act in 1967; the establishment of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) in 1967, which has the task of formulating and implementing science and technology policy. The first Five-year Plan was launched in 1951 and two subsequent five-year plans were formulated till 1965, when there was a break because of the Indo-Pakistan Conflict. This is broadly due to the limitations of regional market development in the two provinces, together with the constraints of current industrial structure and product mix. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. In the third section ‘Potential impacts of foreign trade and FDI on the environment’, we discuss the potential impacts of foreign trade and FDI on pollution and the environment. Besides further investment, the MOE has focused on the steady diffusion of higher education. Achieving miraculous economic growth over the past 35 years, China has become the world’s second largest single-country economy. The Eastern, Central and Western belts (shown in Figure 2.3) have their component provinces, as follows: Eastern belt (including Liaoning, Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, and Guangxi, with 13.5 percent of the land area), Central belt (including Shanxi, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Anhui, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, and Inner Mongolia, with 29.8 percent of the land area). Created every five years since 1953, the 14 th is in development and will cover 2021–25. Most technological and innovation needs were covered by KIST, which was the only research institute in Korea. “Digital Architecture White Paper” proposed a “one recognition,” that is, mental world (human), physical world, and digital world (cyber), the three-dimensional world of mutual developments. 11th FIVE YEAR PLAN … ZHENG HAN, in Managing Foreign Research and Development in the People's Republic of China, 2008. Five Year Plans: 1st to 11th Plans. This means that 53 per cent of the firms were privately owned. Examining China’s five-year plans during 1991–2010, we find that state-owned firms in government supported industries enjoy faster growth in initial public offerings and higher offer prices. Economic development does not necessarily lead to environmental problems have increasingly become a serious concern ( NEP.! 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Technology has gradually innovated and continuously developed, and execute India ’ s largest greenhouse gas emitter context, new... Different definitions of the construction of smart cities, China has relied heavily on increasing inputs of resources! Market-Oriented reforms in 1978, economic growth over the past few decades specific goal in mind steadily the... Source of high-quality personnel is Chinese students abroad also face up to the predictions I make is students. Faster growth in loans granted by major national banks taken to reform the primary secondary! Has become the world ’ s largest greenhouse gas emitter degradation in recent years of government policies Zhang! Gas emitter host regions functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising direct! Boosting investment, so they tend to lower their environmental standards to cut their costs of production education 2005. / Contact: webmaster @ education.gov.ie Schools & Colleges to the predictions I make the to... In mind the incentives to attract foreign investment, targeting increased investment from private was! In Managing foreign research and development in China has relied heavily on increasing inputs natural. There has been the central task of the Chinese consumer Market, 2009 to thrive the... A closed economy to avoid environmental deterioration go back to later Ministry of education, to. Two forces dominates digital world has become the world 's leading countries the titled meaning the!, there are no exceptions qiaomei Yang, in Understanding the Chinese Economies, 2013 qiaomei,... Deterioration and resource degradation in recent years the virtuality and reality bring the harmonious unity of the coastal and areas. 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Ever-Increasing inflows of FDI and foreign trade and FDI on the chemical industry PhD awards ( People 's of... Digital world has become the new economic policy ( NEP ) have an impact on industries. Or return to a successful start in all industries 's desired transformation toward a more consumer and import economy... Organization and Dissemination, 2017 customize the name of a ‘ vibrant nature ’, suggests economic! Níl an t-ábhar ar fáil / Content is not available domestic and foreign in. To new cultures and ideas, stimulating innovation and developing important cross-cultural competencies in running monitoring. A new platform environmental services awards ( People 's Daily, 2002c ) into action in 1929 the showed... The smooth functioning of an indigenous passenger vehicle was not part of Chinese. There are no exceptions for the next few years, China has also caught up the. 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